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Keynote Speakers

 Keynote Speech 


Prof. Masakazu ANPO
Fuzhou University, China(福州大学)
Osaka Prefecture University, Japan(日本大阪府立大学)


Title:
Efficient Sunlight Utilization for TiO2 Photocatalytic H2 Production from Water involving Biomass by its Integration into an Artificial Light-type
Plant Factory

Environmentally harmonious, clean and safe scientific technologies to address energy needs as well as pollution and climatic change are the subject of much recent research. The development of photocatalytic processes will advance sustainable, non-hazardous and economic technologies. We have successfully developed Ti-oxide photocatalysts which enable the absorption of visible light to operate as an efficient environmentally-friendly photocatalyst. This presentation will focus on efficient H2 production from H2O involving biomass using visible light-responsive TiO2 thin film photocatalysts for the separate evolution of H2 and CO2 under sunlight irradiation.1-4)

Research into the development of an artificial-light type plant factory to cultivate various vegetables will also be introduced. These vegetables are grown within a shorter production time than in outdoor fields with artificial LED lights in completely closed cleanrooms under high concentrations of CO2. The plant factory is a new concept in agriculture to supply safe and nutritious produce in year-round regardless of any adverse or disruptive natural or manmade influences such as global warming, climate change, pollution or other potentially damaging circumstances.  
TiO2 photocatalytic H2 and CO2 production from H2O involving biomass as a sacrificial reagent will be discussed by its integration into an artificial LED light-type plant factory as a clean, carbon-neutral and sustainable chemical system in the effective utilization of sunlight.  

 
1)      M. Anpo and P. V. Kamat, “Environmentally Benign Photocatalysts –Applications of Titanium Oxide-based Materials”, Springer, USA, (2011), and references therein.
2)      M. Anpo, J. CO2 Utilization, 1, 8 (2013), and references therein.
3)      Y. Horiuchi, M.Takeuchi, M. Matsuoka, M. Anpo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 13243 (2013).
4)      J. Schneider, M. Anpo, D. Bahnemann, et al., Chem. Rev., 114, 9919 (2014), and references therein.
5)      安保、福田、和田; 電気評論2015年増刊号、7月 12-17頁(2015).






Prof. Kesen Ma
University of Waterloo, Canada(滑铁卢大学)


Title:
Bioalcohol Production at High Temperatures: Properties of Thermostable Biocatalysts and Metabolic Pathways

Many hyperthermophiles, a group of microorganisms growing optimally at or above 80°C, can utilize carbohydrates and peptides to produce ethanol as an end product.  There are desired advantages (such as online product collecting, higher conversion rate, greater substrate solubility and no contamination) for alcohol fermentation at high temperatures due to the boiling point of ethanol at 78°C. There are two pathways known for the alcohol production from pyruvate, a central metabolic intermediate: in a two-enzyme pathway, pyruvate is decarboxylated non-oxidatively by pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) into acetaldehyde, which is then reduced to ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); in a three-enzyme pathway, pyruvate is decarboxylated by either pyruvate ferridoxin oxidoreductase (POR) oxidatively or pyruvate formate lyase into acetyl-CoA that is then reduced to acetaldehyde by a CoA-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH), which is then reduced to ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). There is a lack of understanding of the pathways and key enzymes involved in alcohol production at high temperatures. Both zinc- and iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenases are characterized from hyperthermophilic archaea, and it is also intriguing to find out if hyperthermophilic bacteria could have same types of alcohol dehydrogenases. A highly active alcohol dehydrogenase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis is purified to homogeneity and it contains 0.9 ± 0.03 g atom zinc per subunit. It is a primary-secondary ADH and exhibited a substrate preference for secondary alcohols and corresponding ketones. The physiological roles of the enzyme are proposed to be in the formation of alcohols such as ethanol or acetoin concomitant to the NADPH oxidation. Another alcohol dehydrogenase is purified from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga hypogea, and it contains 1.02 ±0.06 g-atoms of iron per subunit. It has a broad specificity using primary alcohols and aldehydes as substrates. Its physiological role is proposed to catalyze the reduction of aldehydes to alcohols, which is very similar to those iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenases from hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus species. Both iron-containing enzymes are oxygen-sensitive and are successfully cloned and over-expressed in E. coli.  The recombinant ADHs had indistinguishable properties from the native ones. Sequence analyses showed that they are difference groups of ADHs from archaea and bacteria.
 However, it is more puzzling about the enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde at high temperatures. No homolog genes are found to encode commonly-known PDC and AcDH respectively. A novel bifunctional PDC is present in Pyrococcus furiosus, which catalyzes both Co-A-dependent oxidative (POR) and non-oxidative (PDC) decarboxylation of pyruvate, producing acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, respectively. Our results show that such a PDC activity is also present in hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis and bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea. Coenzyme A or desulfo-CoA is required for these PDC activities. Another PDC activity has also been identified in T. maritima, which shows acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity as well. It is concluded that both thermostable bifunctional PDCs and ADHs are present in hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria, supporting that a new type of two-enzyme pathway for alcohol production is operational. Further studies of these thermostable PDC enzymes are required for bioengineering a more efficient alcohol fermentation process at high temperatures.

 

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 Oral Presentations 

Yuhang Yin(殷宇航
East China University of Science and Technology, China(
华东理工大学

Title:

A high quality and quantity hybrid perovskite quantum dots (CsPbX3, X= Cl, Br and I) powders synthesis via ionic displacement

Recently, all-inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X= Cl, Br and I) quantum dots (QDs) have drawn great attentions because of their PL spectra tunable over the whole visible spectral region (400-700 nm) and adjustable bandgap, which revealed a promising potential on the field of photoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, LEDs and sensors. In this paper, CsPbX3 QDs and hybrid QDs, CsPbClxBr3-x and CsPbBrxI3-x were synthesized via one-step and two-step methods comparably. The optical bandgaps of CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3, and CsPbI3, were calculated as 3.08, 2.36, and 1.73eV, respectively, based on the Tauc’s equation and UV absorption spectra. Ionic displacement and phase transformation occurred during the mixing process were found based on the monitoring of PL spectra and HRTEM characterization. The long-term stability, dried, high quality and two-dimensional hybrid CsPbBrxI3-x QDs powders could be achieved via the two-step method. Polar solution inductions were used to wash and purify the CsPbX3 QDs, which help obtain of various compositions and well crystallize all-inorganic perovskites QDs powders.



Yuehong Zhang(张岳宏

East China University of Science and Technology, China(华东理工大学

Title:
Fireproofing and heat insulating performance improvement of EG/ATH modified intumescent flame retardant coating treated under Co-60 radiation

New intumescent flame retardant (IFR) coatings with different fire retardants were prepared in this paper. Expandable graphite (EG) and Aluminium hydroxide (ATH) were respectively added into the conventional IFR coating system, which included ammonium polyphosphate (APP) / pentaerythritol (PER) / melamine (MEL). The fireproofing time and heat insulating properties of the additives acted as fire retardants were investigated via thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and fire resistance test of homemade big panel test. The morphology of the char layer structure was achieved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highlight of the paper was that the coating samples were pretreated under Co-60 radiation. The influence of radiation on the fire resistance time and char layer height was investigated. The results showed that the prepared IFR coatings can be used in Co-60 radiation for more than 90 min when encountering fire. It would be a reference for radiation shielding in nuclear environment.

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